We present a randomization-based inferential framework for experiments characterized by a strongly ignorable assignment mechanism where units have independent probabilities of receiving treatment. Previous works on randomization tests often assume these probabilities are equal within blocks of units. We consider the general case where they differ across units and show how to perform randomization tests and obtain point estimates and confidence intervals. Furthermore, we develop rejection-sampling and importance-sampling approaches for conducting randomization-based inference conditional on any statistic of interest, such as the number of treated units or forms of covariate balance. We establish that our randomization tests are valid tests, and through simulation we demonstrate how the rejection-sampling and importance-sampling approaches can yield powerful randomization tests and thus precise inference. Our work also has implications for observational studies, which commonly assume a strongly ignorable assignment mechanism. Most methodologies for observational studies make additional modeling or asymptotic assumptions, while our framework only assumes the strongly ignorable assignment mechanism, and thus can be considered a minimal-assumption approach.